Operant Conditioning: Phobias
- Group(s): Psychopathology Key Terms
Although classical conditioning can explain why we develop a phobia, it struggles to explain why our phobias do not decay (extinguish) over time. According to operant conditioning, phobias can be negatively reinforced. This is where a behaviour is strengthened, because an unpleasant consequence is removed. For example, if a person with a phobia of dogs sees a dog whilst out walking, they might try to avoid the dog by crossing over the road. This avoidance reduces the person’s feelings of anxiety and negatively reinforces their behaviour, making the person more likely to repeat this behaviour (avoidance) in the future.
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Worked examples of best-practice exam technique and supporting activities designed to build those techniques.
A set of 10 exemplar Topic Essays for the Psychopathology topic, available for immediate download, free-of-charge.
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A set of eight lesson and homework topic worksheets for the AQA A Level Psychology Core Topic - Psychopathology.
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- Behavioural Explanations: Phobias
- Behavioural Treatments: Phobias
- Biological Explanations: OCD
- Biological Treatments: OCD
- Classical Conditioning: Phobias
- Clinical Characteristics: Depression
- Clinical Characteristics: OCD
- Clinical Characteristics: Phobias
- Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: Depression
- Cognitive Explanations: Depression
- Cognitive Treatments: Depression
- Definitions of Abnormality
- Deviation from Ideal Mental Health
- Deviation from Social Norms
- Drug Therapies: OCD
- Ellis's ABC Model
- Failure to Function Adequately
- Fear Hierarchy
- Genetic Explanations: OCD
- Irrational Thoughts
- Neural Explanations: OCD
- Statistical Infrequency
- Systematic Desensitisation
- Two-Process Model
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